slackware 12.2 CDROM install HOWTO (生单词粗糙注释,适应英语水平“极低者”(本人)边学英语边看)

Slackware Linux CD-ROM Installation HOWTO

Patrick Volkerding <volkerdi@slackware.com>

v12.2, 2008-12-02



This document covers涉及 installation of the Slackware(R) distribution分布 of the Linux operating操作的 system from the Slackware CD-ROM.

______________________________________________________________________





Table of Contents内容





1. Introduction介绍; 初步



1.1 Sources来源 of documentation



2. Hardware requirements需求



3. Slackware Space位置 Requirements需求



3.1 Preparing准备 a Partition for Slackware

3.2 Booting the Slackware CD-ROM

3.3 Using Linux fdisk to create创建 Linux partitions



4. Installing the Slackware distribution分布



4.1 The ADDSWAP option

4.2 The TARGET option

4.3 The SOURCE option

4.4 The SELECT option

4.5 The INSTALL option

4.6 The CONFIGURE option

4.7 LILO

4.8 Networking



5. Booting the installed Slackware system



6. Post-installation configuration结构



6.1 /etc/rc.d/rc.modules

6.2 Configuring the X Window System

6.3 Hardware acceleration加速 with X

6.4 User Accounts帐户



7. For more information



8. Trademarks特征



______________________________________________________________________



1. Introduction初步



Linux is a multiuser多用户的, multitasking多任务处理 operating操作 system that was developed发展; 发扬; 发达; 发展; 发育; 生长 by Linus Torvalds and hundreds of volunteers志愿者 around the world working over the Internet.



The Linux operating system now runs on several machine architectures架构,including包括 ARMs, Intel 80x86, SparcSUN公司的工作站系统, 68K, PowerPC, DEC Alpha, MIPS, and others. The Slackware distribution分布 of Linux runs on most PC processors处理器compatible相兼容的 with the Intel 486 or better, including (but not limited限制 to)the Intel 486, Celeron赛扬处理器, Pentium I/MMX/Pro/II/III/Xeon/4/Core 2, AMD 486/K5/K6/K6-II/K6-III/Duron/Athlon/Athlon XP/Athlon MP, Athlon 64,Cyrix 486/5x86/6x86/M-II, Via Cyrix III, Via C3, the Transmeta

Crusoe and Efficeon. Essentially本质上 anything that's x86 and 32 (with at least i486 opcodes) or 64 bit will do (although尽管 Intel Macs may require需要a few extra额外的 tricks戏法 that you'll need to Google for and are not documented here).



Linux is modeled形成模式 after the UNIX(R) operating system. The Slackware distribution分布 contains包含 a full program development发展 system with support支持 for C, C++, Fortran-77, LISP, and other languages, full TCP/IP networking with NFS, PPP, CIFS/SMB (Samba), a full implementation完成 of the X Window System, and much more.





1.1. Sources来源 of Documentation



If you're new to Slackware, you'll be happy to know there is a *lot* of documentation and help available有效的 both on the Internet and on the CD-ROM itself它自己.



One of the primary最主要者 sources of Linux information is a collection合集 of documents known as the "Linux HOWTOs." You can find these on the Internet on http://ibiblio.org, in the /pub/Linux/docs/HOWTO directory. These are also installed on a Slackware machine in /usr/doc/Linux-HOWTOs/.



Other useful有用的 documentation at that site includes包含:



/pub/Linux/docs/FAQ -- answers to Frequently经常地 Asked Questions about Linux



/pub/Linux/docs/LDP/ -- Manual手册s written by the Linux Documentation Project项目.



/pub/Linux/docs/LDP/install-guide 指导 -- Matt粗糙 Welsh's逃避履行义务 "Linux Installation and Getting获得 Started" book. Although尽管 the installation

information contained包含 is a little bit dated, it's still仍然 filled满足 with useful information. If you're

unfamiliar不熟悉的 with UNIX, you'll find this guide to be a handy方便的 introduction介绍.





2. Hardware Requirements需求



Most PC hardware will work fine with Slackware, but some Plug-and-Play devices can be tricky狡猾的,机警的 to set up. In some cases案例 you can work around this by letting DOS initialize初始化 the card and then starting Slackware with the Loadlin utility公用程序. Setting the computer's BIOS to configure配置 Plug-and-Play cards also may help -- to do this, change the "Plug and Play OS" option to "no".



Here's a basic list of what you'll need to install Slackware:



Sixty-four megabytes兆字节 (64MB) or more of RAM. If you have less少的 than 64 megabytes, we strongly坚强地 suggest建议 you obtain获得 a new computer.



You also will need some disk space to install Slackware. For a complete完整的installation, you'll probably或许 want to devote投入于 a 6GB *or larger* partition completely to Slackware (you'll need almost 5GB for a full default installation, and then you'll want extra额外的 space when you're done).

If you haven't installed Slackware before, you may have to experiment尝试.

If you've got the drive space, more is going to be better than not enough.

Also, you can always install only the first software set (the A series系列containing only the basic system utilities公用程序) and then install more software later once your system is running.



If you use SCSI, Slackware supports支持 most SCSI controllers控制器. The "huge"kernels support as much of the boot hardware as possible, including包括several若干 hardware RAID controllers, Fiber纤维; 质地; 纤维物质, 纤维质料; 性格 Channel controllers, software RAID in linear线的,直线的,线状的 and RAID 0 through穿过 6 and RAID 10, LVM (Logical符合逻辑的,逻辑上的 Volume体积,容量,音量Manager管理器), and kernel support支持 required需要 to have fully完全地 encrypted加密 systems.



To install from the DVD or CD-ROM, you'll need a supported drive. These days, the chances偶然发生,试试看 that your drive is supported by the install kernels is excellent极好的. But, if not, you can always use a USB stick and install via通过 the network. Or, use a floppy disk to install using PXE and the network. See the docs in usb-and-pxe-installers and the etherboot directory within for instructions使用说明.





3. Slackware Space空间 Requirements需求



Slackware divides the installable software into categories种类. (in the old days when people installed Linux from floppy disks, these were often referred to as "disk sets集合") Only the A series系列 category (containing包含 the base Linux OS) is mandatory强制性的, but you can't do very much on a system that only has the A series installed. Here's an overview概貌 of the software categories 种类 available可用的 for installation, along with the (approximate大约的) amount数量 of drive space needed to install the entire全部的 set:



A The base Slackware system. (260 MB)



AP Linux applications应用. (255 MB)



D Program development发展 tools. (559 MB)



E GNU Emacs. (81 MB)



F FAQs and HOWTOs for common共同的 tasks任务. (34 MB)



K Linux 2.6.27.7 kernel source. (333 MB)



KDE The K Desktop Environment环境 and applications应用. (745 MB)



KDEI Language support支持 for the K Desktop Environment. (942 MB)



L System libraries用于在编程语言里为从原始码建立程序的程序和命令的收集. (586 MB)



N Networking applications应用 and utilities公用程序. (266 MB)



T TeX typesetting排版 language. (283 MB)



TCL Tcl/Tk/TclX scripting脚本 languages and tools. (14 MB)



X X Window System graphical图解的(绘图的,生动的) user interface界面. (277 MB)



XAP Applications为使用者或其他应用进行某个任务而设计的计算机程序 (比如文字处理软件, 涂写纸, web 浏览窗等等) for the X Window System. (475 MB)



Y Classic古典作品 text-based BSD games. (6 MB)



If you have the disk space, we encourage鼓励 you to do a full installation for best results结果. Otherwise否则, remember that you must install the A set. You probably能干地,巧妙地 also want to install the AP, D, L, and N series, as well as the KDE,X, and XAP sets if you wish to run the X Window System. The Y series is fun,but not required必须的.





3.1 Preparing a Partition for Slackware



If you plan计划 to install Slackware onto its own hard drive partition(this offers提议 optimal最理想的 performance表现), then you'll need to prepare准备 one or more partitions for it.



A partition is a section部分 of a hard drive that has been set aside另外 for use by an operating system. You can have up to four primary主要的partitions on a single单一的 hard drive. If you need more than that, you can make what is called an ''extended扩展 partition.'' This is actually实际上a way to make one of the primary partitions contain包含 several

sub-partitions.



Usually通常 there won't be any free space on your hard drive. Instead,you will have already已经 partitioned it for the use of other operating systems, such as MS-DOS or Windows. Before you can make your Linux partitions, you'll need to remove one or more of your existing现有的 drive partitions to make room用手拔 for it. Removing a partition destroys破坏 the data on it, so you'll want to back it up first.



If you've got得到 a large大量的 partition that you'd like to shrink收缩 to make space for Slackware you might可能 consider考虑 purchasing获得 Partition Magic, a commercial商业的 partition re-sizing tool: http://www.symantec.com).

Anyone who installs their own自己的 operating systems will find this to be a very valuable有价值的 tool. There are also free options such as GNU parted使分成几部分.

It is included包含 in the installer, and as a package in the /extra额外的directory.



If you plan to repartition分配 your system manually手动地, you'll need to back up the data on any partitions you plan to change. The usual通常的 tool for deleting/creating创建 partitions is the fdisk program. Most PC operating systems have a version版本 of this tool, and if you're running DOS or Windows it's probably或许 best to use the repartitioning tool from that OS.

Usually DOS uses the entire全部的 drive. Use DOS fdisk to delete the partition. Then create a smaller primary DOS partition, leaving残余 enough space to install Linux. Preferably更可取 this should be more than 6GB.

If your machine doesn't have a lot of RAM, you'll want another partition for swap space. The swap partition should be equal等于,比得上 to the amount数量 of RAM your machine has, but should in any case情形,情况 be at least 128MB. If you don't have that much drive space to spare剩余, the more the better to avoid避免 running out of virtual虚拟的 RAM (especially尤其 if you plan on using a graphical图解的 desktop). You'll then need to reinstall DOS or Windows on your new DOS partition, and then restore恢复 your backup.



We'll go into more detail细节 about partitioning later, and you don't need to create创建 any new partitions yet仍然 -- just make sure you have enough free space on the drive to do an installation (more than 6GB is ideal), or that you have some idea about which existing现有的 partition you can use for to install on.





3.2 Booting the Slackware CD-ROM



If your machine has a bootable CD-ROM drive (you may need to configure this in the system's BIOS settings) then you'll be able有能力的 to directly直接地(立即,完全)boot the first CD-ROM. If not, then see the files in the usb-and-pxe-installers directory for information about alternative两者择一的 methods方法 of booting the installer. Also, don't neglect忽略 to read the CHANGES_AND_HINTS.TXT file, which is probably大概, 或许 the most accurate准确的 piece of documentation to ship运送 with Slackware (thanks Robby!).



Now it's time to boot the disc. Put the Slackware installation CD-ROM in your machine's CD-ROM drive and reboot to load the disc. You'll get an initial information screen and a prompt提示 (called the "boot:" prompt) at the bottom of the screen. This is where you'll enter the name of the kernel that you want to boot with. With most systems you'll want to use the default默认 kernel, called hugesmp.s. Even on a machine with only a single单一的 one-core processor处理器, it is recommended to use this kernel if your machine

can run it. Otherwise否则 use the huge.s kernel, which should support支持 any 486 or better.



To boot the hugesmp.s kernel, just enter hugesmp.s on the boot prompt:



boot: hugesmp.s



(actually实际上, since自...以来 the hugesmp.s kernel is the default, you could have just hit打击 ENTER and the machine would go ahead向前地 and load the hugesmp.s kernel

for you)



If you've got some non-standard标准的 hardware in your machine (or if hugesmp.s doesn't work, and you're beginning to suspect怀疑 you need a different不同的 kernel), then you'll have to try huge.s. If, for some reason原因, that still仍然 will not boot and you know that your hardware should be supported by the 2.6.27.7 kernel, contact联系 volkerdi at slackware dot com(volderdi@slackware.com) and I will see what I can do.





These are the kernels shipped运送, 装运 in Slackware:



hugesmp.s This is the default installation kernel. If possible, you can save节约 a bit of RAM later (and some ugly可怕的 warnings警告 at

boot time or when trying to load modules模块 when the driver is already built建造-in) by switching to a generic普通的 kernel. In this

case情形 that would be gensmp.s, which is a similar相似的 kernel but without filesystems and many of the less common普通的 drive

controllers控制器 built in. To support支持 these (at the very least your root filesystem), an initrd (actually实际上 an initramfs)

is required必需的 when a generic一般的 kernel is used. Previous在...之前 versions版本 of Slackware used an ext2 filesystem for this, but

now a filesystem-less dynamic动态的,有动力的,有力的 kernel-based以...为基础 directory structure结构 is used. A big advantage优势 of this is that the size

usable可用的 by the initrd is only limited有限的 by the amount of RAM in the machine. A disadvantage缺点 is that the generic普通的,共有的 kernels no

longer include *any* filesystems besides除...之外 romfs, so old initrd.gz files are not usable可用的 (they would have needed new

modules模块 anyway不管怎样), and it is trickier狡猾的,机警的 to get获得 a custom习惯 binaries二进位的; 二元的; 有两个部分的; 以两个单数为基础的数字系统; 用电脑代码信息方法的 (计算机用语)

or modules or whatever不管怎样的 into the installer for guru在某些技术方面很专长并帮助别人的专家-install

purposes目的. It's not impossible不可能的 though -- think tar to/from a device such as a USB stick, or leveraging ROMFS.



gensmp.s The trimmed修剪; 消减 down, more modular模块化的 version版本 of hugesmp.s. This can be switched to, after setting up an initrd and

reinstalling LILO.



huge.s This is the 486-compatible兼容的 single单一的 processor处理器 version版本 of the hugesmp.s kernel. Try this if hugesmp.s does not work on your machine.



generic.s The trimmed down, more modular version of huge.s.



speakup.s This is like the huge.s (486 compatible loaded kernel), but has support支持 for Speakup and all the SCSI, RAID, LVM, and other

features特征 of huge.s. There is no corresponding符合的 generic共有的 kernel for speakup.s, but the vanilla linux sources来源 may be patched打补丁的

with the speakup sources in source/k (this will probably或许 work on any recent最近的 kernel). After that, whatever不管怎样的 customizations are

needed should be easily adjusted改变...以适应. The speakup.s kernel is used to support hardware speech演讲 synthesizers合成器 as well as

software one like festival节日的,喜庆的,快乐的 (though尽管 these require需要 additional附加的 programs that are not yet shipped装运 with Slackware).



For more information about speakup and its drivers check out:

http://www.linux-speakup.org.

To use this, you'll need to specify明确说明 one of the supported支持 synthesizers合成器 on the kernel's boot prompt提示:



speakup.s speakup.synth=synth



where 'synth' is one of the supported speech synthesizers:

acntpc, acntsa, apollo, audptr, bns, decext, decpc,

dectlk, dtlk, dummy, keypc, ltlk, soft, spkout, txprt.



A serial port may be specified指定的 with an option like this:



speakup.s speakup.synth=decext speakup.ser=1



Note that speakup serial连续的 ports从一个站台到另一个站台的程序传送 are numbered starting with one (1, 2, 3) rather较普通时刻[时期]早的, 早熟的 than the more typical典型的 0, 1, 2 numbering

usually seen on Linux.





Note that if you use the huge (non-SMP kernel) and plan to compile编译 any third ***** kernel modules模块, you may need to apply应用 the kernel patch对一个程序的小修改 (只增加或改变程序的一小部分) in /extra/linux-2.6... or, you could just cd to the kernel sources, run "make menuconfig", make sure that SMP (and the -smp suffix) are turned转动

off, and recompile重编译 the kernel with "make". But, that's for later --after the install.





Once you've entered进入 your kernel choice选择 and hit ENTER, the kernel and install program will load from the DVD or CD-ROM, and you'll arrive到达 at the Linux login prompt提示. (You're running Linux now. Congratulations! :-)



To log into the system, enter the name of the superuser超级用户 account帐户 and hit Enter:



root



Since之前 there is no password on the install CD, you will be logged存入数据 in right away离开.





3.3 Using Linux fdisk to create Linux partitions



At this point指出, you should have a large chunk大块 of unpartitioned space on your hard drive that you'll be making into partitions for Slackware.



Now you're ready to create your root Linux partition. To do this, you'll use the Linux version版本 of fdisk.



To need to partition a hard drive, you need to specify具体指定 the name of the device when you start fdisk. For example例子:



fdisk /dev/hda (Repartition重新分配 the first IDE hard drive)

fdisk /dev/hdb (Repartition the second IDE hard drive)

fdisk /dev/sda (Repartition the first SCSI hard drive)

fdisk /dev/sdb (Repartition the second SCSI hard drive)



NOTE: If you prefer, you may also try a newer menu-driven驱动器 version版本 of Linux fdisk called 'cfdisk'. Rumor传闻 has it that MOST people do prefer较喜欢 cfdisk, and "newer" has to be taken in context. cfdisk has many years of testing测试 behind在...之后 it.



Once you've started fdisk, it will display显示 a command命令 prompt提示. First look at your existing现有的 partition table with the 'p' command:



Command (m for help): p



Disk /dev/hda: 40.0 GB, 40020664320 bytes

255 heads, 63 sectors扇形/track, 4865 cylinders硬盘里有形存储单位

Units单位 = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes



Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System

/dev/hda1 * 1 2423 19462716 c W95 FAT32 (LBA)





Here we can see that there is one DOS partition on the drive already已经, starting on the first cylinder and extending to cylinder 2423. Since既然,因为 the drive has 4865 cylinders, the range范围 2424 - 4865 is free to accept接受 a Linux installation.



If the FAT32 partition were using the entire全部的 drive, you would have no choice but to delete it entirely完全地 (this destroys破坏 the partition), or go back and use some kind种类 of partition resizing tool like GNU parted or Partition Magic to create some free space for the installation. If you need to delete a partition, use the 'd' command. You'll be asked which partition number you want to delete -- check the partition size to make sure it's the right one.



Next, you'll want to use the 'n' command to create a primary主要的 partition.

This will be your root Linux partition.



Command (m for help): n

Command action 动作

e extended延伸

p primary partition (1-4)



You'll want to enter 'p' to make a primary partition.



Partition number (1-4): 2



Here, you enter "2" since DOS is already using the first primary partition. Fdisk will first ask you which cylinder the partition should start on. Fdisk knows where your last partition left off and will suggest建议the first available可用的 cylinder on the drive as the starting point for the new partition. Go ahead向前地 and accept同意 this value重要性. Then, fdisk will want to know what size to make the partition. You can specify具体指定 this in a couple加倍,成双,连结 of ways, either或,也 by entering输入 the ending终止 cylinder number directly直接地, or by entering a size. In this case情形, we'll enter the last cylinder. Here's what the screen looks like as these figures数字 are entered开始:



First cylinder (2424-4865): 2424

Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (2424-4865): 4700



You have now created创建 your primary Linux partition with a size of 18.7 GB.

Next, you'll want to make a Linux swap partition. You do this the same way. First, enter another "n" to make a primary partition:



Command (m for help): n

Command action

e extended

p primary partition (1-4)



Enter "p" to select a primary partition. Partition 1 is in use by DOS, and you've already used partition 2 for Linux, so you'll want to enter "3" for the new partition number:



Partition number (1-4): 3



Since this is the last partition we plan to make on this hard drive, we'll use the end cylinder this time. Here are the entries条目 for this:



First cylinder (4701-4865): 4701

Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (4701-4865): 4865



Now we need to set the type类型 of partition to 82, used for Linux swap. The reason理由 we didn't need to set a partition type the last time is that unless otherwise否则 specified具体指定 Linux fdisk automatically sets the type of all new partitions to 83 (Linux). To set the partition type, use the "t" command:



Command (m for help): t

Partition number (1-4): 3

Hex code (type L to list codes): 82



Now you're ready to save the updated更新的 partition table information onto your hard drive. Use the "p" command again to check the results结果 and be sure you're satisfied感到满意的 with them:



Command (m for help): p



Disk /dev/hda: 40.0 GB, 40020664320 bytes

255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 4865 cylinders

Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes



Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System

/dev/hda1 1 2423 19462716+ c W95 FAT32 (LBA)

/dev/hda2 2424 4700 18720732 83 Linux

/dev/hda3 4701 4865 1317332 82 Linux swap



This looks good, so we'll use the "w" command to write the data out to the drive's partition table. If you want to exit without updating the partition table (if you've made a mistake错误), then you can exit without changing anything by using the "q" command instead.



When you exit fdisk using the "w" command, fdisk recommends建议 that you reboot the machine to be sure that the changes you've made take effect完成.

Unless you've created extended延伸 partitions, you can go ahead在前 and run setup without rebooting.



Note: Sometimes fdisk will give you a message like "This drive has more than 1024 cylinders" and warn警告 about possible problems using partitions with DOS. This is because MS-DOS suffers经验,忍受 from a limitation限制 that only allows允许 access接近 to the first 1024 cylinders on a hard drive. At one time, LILO used the standard标准的 BIOS routines常规性工作 to read sectors扇形, so this was a limitation限制 of LILO, too. Luckily modern现代的 versions版本 of LILO use the LBA32 method of accessing sectors, so this limitation no longer applies应用. If you see the warning from fdisk, you can safely ignore不顾 it.





4.0 Installing the Slackware distribution分布



Now that you have one or more Linux partitions, you are now ready to begin installing software onto your hard drive. To start the Slackware install program, enter the command "setup" and hit enter:



# setup



The installer will start up with a full-color menu on your screen with the various各种各样的 options needed to install Slackware. In general普遍的, you'll want to start with the ADDSWAP option. Even if you've already创建 created and activated激活的 a swap partition manually手动地, you'll need to run this so Slackware adds the swap partition to your /etc/fstab file. If you don't add it, your system won't use the swap space when you reboot.



Installing a typical典型的 system involves包括 running the following下列各项 options from the setup menu in this order次序: ADDSWAP, TARGET把...作为目标, SOURCE来源, SELECT, INSTALL,

and CONFIGURE. You may also start with KEYMAP if you have a non-US keyboard layout布局, or with TARGET if you don't want to use a swap partition.



For the rest of this section, we'll walk through a typical典型的 installation process过程.





4.1 The ADDSWAP option:



First, we select the ADDSWAP option. The system will scan for partitions marked as type "Linux swap" and will ask if you want to use them for swap space. Answer YES, and the system will format the partition and then make it active主动的 for swapping. Once it's finished, setup will display显示 a message showing the line it will add to /etc/fstab to configure the swap partition at boot time. Hit enter to continue继续, and setup will go on to the TARGET section of the install.



NOTE: If you created a partition to use for swap space, but setup doesn't see it when it scans your drives, it's possible that the partition type hasn't been set in the partition table. Use the Linux "fdisk" program to list your partitions like this:



# fdisk -l



Disk /dev/hda: 40.0 GB, 40020664320 bytes

255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 4865 cylinders

Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes



Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System

/dev/hda1 1 2423 19462716+ c W95 FAT32 (LBA)

/dev/hda2 2424 4700 18720732 83 Linux

/dev/hda3 4701 4865 1317332 82 Linux



In this case情形, if /dev/sda3 is meant表示...的意思 to be a Linux swap partition, you'll need to start fdisk on drive /dev/sda:



# fdisk /dev/sda



Command (m for help): t

Partition number (1-4): 3

Hex code (type L to list codes): 82



Command (m for help): w



This will change the third partition to type 82 (Linux swap) and write the partition table out to /dev/sda.



When you run setup again, the ADDSWAP option should detect the Linux swap partition.





4.2 The TARGET option:



The next option on the setup menu is TARGET. This lets you select which partition(s) you'd like to install Slackware on, and will format them using a Linux filesystem. Depending相信; 依靠, 依赖 on which kernel you chose to boot with, your filesystem choices may include包括 ext2 (the traditional传统的 Linux filesystem), ext3 (a journaling日志 version版本 of ext2), and Reiserfs (the first journaling日志 filesystem written for Linux; it stores存储物品 files in a balanced均衡的 tree).



When you select the TARGET option, the system will scan for "Linux" partitions on your hard drives. If it doesn't find any, you'll need to make sure that you've created partitions using the fdisk program, and that the partitions are labeled有标签的 as type 83 (Linux). This is the same process过程 shown显示 above上文的. If you've created one or more partitions for Slackware using Linux's fdisk program then you shouldn't have any problems, since因为 Linux fdisk (and cfdisk) sets all new partitions to type 83 (Linux) by default.



You will see a menu listing all the Linux partitions. Use the arrow箭头 keys to select the partition you'd like to use for your root (or primary) Linux partition and hit enter. The setup program will then ask if you'd like to format the partition, and what type of filesystem to use. If this is a new installation of Slackware, you'll need to do this. Otherwise否则, if you are installing software onto an existing现有的 Linux system, you don't need to format the partition. For example例子, the partition might可能 be used as your

/home and contains包含 home directories that you want to keep. If you choose not to format a partition, you'll see "partition will not be reformatted" on the top of the screen as you confirm确定 your choice, so that there can be no question about it.



There are a few很少的 options you need to know about when you format Linux partitions. First, you'll need to decide决定 whether or not you'd like to check the partition for bad blocks when you do the format. This is usually通常 not necessary必需的 unless除非 you know the drive in question has problems.

Checking takes quite完全 a while longer than a normal正常的 format (and most IDE drives do self-checking anyway), so you'll probably或许 want to just go ahead向前地and use the "Format" menu option to format the drive without checking.

If you have drive problems later on (and can't just replace the hard drive with a better one), then you might want to go back and try again using the "Check" option to map out the bad sectors扇形 on the drive.



You'll notice注意 that the partition you just formatted is now listed列出的 as "in use." If you made some other partitions for Slackware, you'll need to go through the same process of formatting them, selecting whether不管 or not to check for bad blocks, and setting a reasonable合理的 inode density密度. With these partitions there will be an additional附加的 step步骤 -- you'll need to select where you'd like to put the partition in your directory tree.



MS-DOS/Windows assigns DOS命令将驱动器符重指向第二个驱动器符 a letter such as A:, B:, C:, etc, to each device.

Unlike DOS, Linux makes your devices visible可见的 somewhere under the root directory (/). You might have /dev/hda1 for your root partition (/) and put /dev/hda2 somewhere underneath在下面 it, such as under your /home directory.

When prompted提示 for a mount location地点, just enter a directory such as /home, and hit enter. As you format each additional附加的 partition and place it in the filesystem tree, you'll be returned to the partition selection menu.

When you've prepared有准备的(特别处理过的) all of your Linux partitions, you'll go on to the SOURCE option.





4.3 The SOURCE option:



The next menu option is SOURCE, where you select the source from which to install Slackware.



SOURCE displays a menu offering提供 the choice of installation from CD-ROM, a hard drive partition, NFS, HTTP/FTP, or a directory (mounted manually).

You'll want to make sure your Slackware CD-ROM is in your drive, and select the first option:



"Install from a Slackware CD-ROM"



Next, the system will ask you if you'd like to scan for your CD-ROM drive or pick选择 manually手动地 from a list. (unless除非 you're trying to show off to your friends, go ahead向前地 and let让 setup scan for the CD-ROM drive automatically自动地).

Setup will then try to access the Slackware CD-ROM. If this is successful成功的, setup will tell you that it found and mounted a CD-ROM on a Linux device such as /dev/hdc. If the CD-ROM was successful found, you may skip ahead在...前面 to the SELECT section below在...下面, otherwise否则 read on for some CD-ROM troubleshooting发现并修理故障 tips提示.



If setup is not successful in accessing the CD-ROM drive, you'll need to figure演算 out why before you can go on. The most common通常的 reason理由 for this is that you used a kernel that doesn't support the CD-ROM drive. If that's the case情形, you need to restart the installation CD-ROM and specify具体指定 a kernel that contains包含 a driver to support支援 your CD-ROM drive (if the drive is connected连接 to a SCSI card, for example例子, you'll need to use a kernel with support for that card). You can also try switching to a different console控制台 with Alt-F2 and mounting the CD-ROM drive manually手动地 and then installing from a pre-mounted directory安装好的 (if you prefer较喜欢 a hands-on approach途径).



If you have no idea which device an IDE CD-ROM drive is connected to, you should have the system scan for it. You also can look at the messages generated生成的 by the system as it boots -- you should see a message that Slackware detected检测到的 your CD-ROM drive along沿着 with information about what type of drive it is. You can look at these messages by using the right shift key together共同 with the PageUp and PageDown keys to scroll卷动 the screen up and down.



For the network options, you'll need to have a network card that's supported支援 by one of the installer's modules模块, and preferably更可取地 a DHCP server running to make the network setup easy. The network install options are to use as your source an NFS server, an FTP server, or an HTTP server (along with an optional port). If you use DHCP to set up, odds可能的机会 are you'll have working name resolution决定 and won't need to enter an IP address to specify具体指定 the server (but you can if you wish, of course).



The network installation feature特点 is intended有意的 primarily首先 to facilitate使容易 installing to many machines on a local network. Please don't use it to bog使...陷于泥淖 down the Slackware mirror sites位置.



Thanks to Eric Hameleers for finally最后 bringing带来 FTP/HTTP installtion support支持 to the Slackware installer. :-)





4.4 The SELECT option:



The SELECT option lets you select software to install.



When you start the SELECT option, you'll see a menu where you can choose which categories种类 of software you're interested in installing. The first series系列 (called the A series) contains包含 the base filesystem structure构成 and binaries用电脑代码信息方法的 that are crucial重要的 for your system to boot and run properly正确地. You must install the A series. Make sure that at least最小的 the selection for series A has an [X] next to it. Most of the other choices will also have an [X] next to them, and while you can use the cursor光标 keys and the space bar to unselect items项目 to save space (see the space requirements above在上面 for details详情), you're better off with a complete全部的 installation if you have the space for it.



Once you've selected the general普通的 categories种类 of software you wish to install, hit enter and you'll go on to the INSTALL option.





4.5 The INSTALL option:



This option actually实际上 installs the selected packages to the hard drive.



The first question the INSTALL option will ask is what type类型 of prompting提示you'd like to use during在...的期间 the installation process步骤. A menu will show several options, including包括 "full", "newbie新的网络用户", "menu", "expert专家", "custom订制的","tagpath", and "help". The help option gives detailed详情 information on each of the choices.



Most people will want to use "full". Others might want "menu", "expert" or "newbie" mode. We'll cover覆盖 each of these in detail详细 now.



The first option to consider考量 is "full". If you select this mode, then setup assumes认为当然,认定,假定 you want to install all the packages in each selected series and installs them all without further更多的 prompting提示. This is fast and easy.

Of course, depending相信; 依靠, 依赖 on which software categories种类 you've chosen, this can use a lot of drive space. If you use this option, you should be installing to a partition with at least 6GB free (and hopefully有希望地 more like 20GB or so) to insure确保 that you don't run out of drive space during在...的期间 the installation process步骤. Because Linux allows允许 you to split分离的 your installation across multiple多样的; 并联的 partitions硬盘存储区的划分, the installer cannot know ahead在前; 预先 of time whether the packages you've chosen to install will fit适合 your partitioning scheme方案. Therefore因此, it is up to you to make sure that there is enough room.



The "newbie新的网络用户" mode (which was formerly从前 known已知的 as "normal标准的" mode) installs all of the required必须的 packages in each series系列. For each of the non-required

packages (one by one) you'll get获得 a menu where you can answer YES (install the package), NO (do not install the package), or SKIP略过 (skip ahead在前 to the next series系列). You'll also see a description说明书 of what the package does and how much space it will require需要 to help you decide决定 whether是否 you need it or not. The "newbie" mode is verbose冗长的, requires需要… input after each package, and is VERY tedious冗长乏味的. It certainly必定 takes a lot longer to install using newbie mode, and (in spite恶意, 不顾, 怨恨 of the name), it is easier to make mistakes错误 in newbie mode than by simply简单地 doing a full installation. Still寂静, using it is a good way to get a basic education教育, 教育学, 训练 about what software goes into the system since此后; 之前, 以前 you actually实际上 get a chance试试看 to read the package descriptions. With a full installation most of the package descriptions will fly by too quickly to read.



If you can decide决定 which packages you want from less较少 information, the "menu" or "expert" options are a good choice, and go much faster than a "newbie" mode installation. These options display展出 a menu before installing each series系列 and let you toggle拴牢; 系紧 items项目 on or off with the spacebar. In this Slackware release发行, the "menu" and "expect" install modes act行为 the same, and both options are kept only for consistency一贯性 [会计] 一致性 [计].

The "expert" mode lets you toggle packages individually1 以个人身份,就个人而论2 个别地,单独地,各个地, allowing允许 the user to make good or bad decisions决定, like turning off crucial决定性的, 严厉的, 重要的 packages or installing a package that's part of a larger大量的 set of software without installing the other parts. If you know exactly正确地 what you need, the "expert" mode offers提议 the maximum最大量 amount of flexibility灵活性. If you don't know what you need, using the "full" mode is strongly强烈地 suggested建议.



The "custom" and "tagpath" options are only used if you've created创建 "tagfiles" for installation. In the first directory of each disk set一批 is a file called "tagfile" containing a list of all the packages in that series, as well as a flag标记 marking做记号 whether the package should be installed automatically自动地, skipped略过, or the user should be prompted提示,迅速的 to decide决定. This is useful for situations形势,环境 where you need to install large大量的 numbers of machines (such as in a computer lab), but most users will not need to create tagfiles. If you are interested in using them, look at one of the tagfiles with an editor.



If you're new to Slackware, and you have enough drive space, you'll probably或许 want to select the "full" option as the easiest way to install.

Otherwise, the "menu" option is another good choice for most beginners.

If you think you need (or would just like to see) the extra额外的 information offered提议 by the "newbie" mode, go ahead在前; 预先; 向前 and use that. Don't say you weren't warned警告, 通知, 注意 about the extra time it requires需要,, though虽然, especially特别; 格外 when installing the fragments碎片 that make up modular有标准组件的 X. Trust信任 us, you'll

be better off selecting "full".



Once you have selected a prompting mode, the system begins the installation process步骤. If you've chosen "menu" or "expert" mode, you'll see a menu of software to choose from right away -- use the arrow keys and spacebar to pick what you need, and then hit enter to install it. If you've chosen the "newbie" mode, the installation will begin immediately立刻,

continuing连续的, 不间断的 until到...为止 it finds optional packages. You'll get a selection指定 menu for each of these. If you selected "full", now it's time to sit back and

watch the packages install.



If you've selected too much software, it's possible that your hard drive may run out of space during在...的期间 installation. If this happens, you'll know it because you'll see error messages on the screen as setup tries尝试 to install the packages. In such a case时机; 事情, your only choice is to reinstall重新装配 selecting less software. You can avoid避开 this problem by choosing a reasonable amount of software to begin with, and installing more software later once your system is running. Installing software on a running Slackware system is as easy as it is during the initial installation -- just type the following command to mount the Slackware CD-ROM:



mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom



Then go to the directory with the packages you want to install, and use the install-packages script脚本:



cd /mnt/cdrom/slackware/xap

sh install-packages



Other options for installing packages later on include包含 "installpkg" and "pkgtool". For more information about these, see the man pages ("man installpkg", "man pkgtool").



Once you have installed the software on your system, you'll go on to the CONFIGURE option.





4.6 The CONFIGURE option:



The setup's CONFIGURE option does the basic configuration your system needs, such as setting up your mouse, setting your timezone, and more.



The CONFIGURE option will first ensure确定 that you've installed a usable可用的Linux kernel on your hard drive. The installation program should automatically自动地 install the kernel used to do the initial installation.

If you installed using the speakup.s kernel from CD-ROM, the menu will prompt提示 you to re-insert your installation disc and hit enter, and then setup will copy the kernel from the disc to your hard drive.



NOTE: If you install a kernel on your system that doesn't boot correctly正确地,you can still还; 更; 仍 boot your system with the CD-ROM. To do this, you need to enter some information on the boot prompt提示. For example例子, if your root partition is on /dev/hda1, you'd enter this to boot your system:



huge.s root=/dev/hda1 initrd= ro



The "initrd=" option tells the kernel not to run the /init script脚本 on the installer image in RAM, and the "ro" option makes the root partition initially最初; 开头 load as read-only so Linux can safely check the filesystem.



Once you've installed a kernel, you'll be asked if you want to make a USB bootstick for your new system. This is a very good idea if you happen to have a spare多余的 USB flash stick that you don't mind having COMPLETELY彻底地; 完全地 ERASED擦掉. :-), so if you wish to make one, insert a USB flash memory stick when prompted提示 and use the "Create创建" option to create a USB bootstick for your system.



Next you'll be asked what type of mouse you have. Pick the mouse type from the menu (or hit cancel if you don't have a mouse), and setup will create a /dev/mouse link. Most computers use a PS/2 mouse, which is the first choice.



After this, other installation scripts will run depending相信; 依靠, 依赖 on which packages you've installed. For instance, if you installed the network-* packages you'll be asked if you want to configure your network.





4.7 LILO



LILO is the Linux Loader, a program that allows允许 you to boot Linux (and other operating systems) directly直接地 from your hard drive. If you installed the LILO package, you now have an opportunity机会, 时机 to set it up.



Installing LILO can be dangerous. If you make a mistake错误 it's possible to make your hard drive unbootable. If you're new to Linux, it might be a good idea to skip LILO installation and use the bootdisk to start your system at first. You can install LILO later using the 'liloconfig' command after you've had a chance机会 to read the information about it in

/usr/doc/lilo-*. If you do decide决定 to go ahead在前 and install LILO, be sure you have a way to boot all the operating systems on your machine in case something goes wrong. If you can't boot Windows again, use the DOS command "FDISK /MBR" to remove LILO from your master boot record记录. (You can use a Windows Startup Disk for this)



The easiest way to set your machine up with LILO is to pick the "simple" choice on the LILO installation menu. This will examine检查 your system and try to set up LILO to be able to boot Windows (DOS) and Linux partitions that it finds. If it locates找出 the OS/2 Boot Manager, it will ask if you'd like to configure the Linux partition so that you can add it to the Boot Manager menu. (NOTE: If you use a disk overlay重复占位 program for large IDE hard drives such as EZ-DRIVE, please see the warning below before installing ILO)



The "expert" option gives you much more control over the configuration of LILO. If you decide决定 to use the "expert" option, here's how you do it. LILO uses a configuration file called /etc/lilo.conf to hold抓住 the information about your bootable partitions -- the "expert" LILO installation lets you direct直接的 the construction构造 of this file. To create创建 the file, first select BEGIN to enter the basic information about where to install LILO. The first menu will ask if you have extra额外的 parameters参数 you'd like passed to the Linux kernel at boot time. If you need any extra parameters enter them here.



Then you'll be asked if you wish to use the framebuffer console操纵台. The 1024x768x256 console setting is a nice one to use in most cases, but you may need to experiment实验, 尝试 to find the nicest setting for your card. Some look terrible可怕的, 极坏的 at modes larger than 800x600 because of the default refresh使清新 rates比例, 率; 速度, 速率, but at least ATI cards are known to look great at 1024x768x256.

If you want to use the framebuffer console, select a mode here.



Next, decide where you want LILO installed. Usually you'll want to install LILO on the boot drive's MBR (master boot record). If you use a different不同的 boot manager (like the one that comes with OS/2) then you'll want to install LILO on your root Linux partition and then add that partition to the boot manager menu using its configuration tool. Under

OS/2, this is the fdisk program.



NOTE: If you use the EZ-DRIVE utility公用程序 (a diskmanager program supplied提供 with some large IDE drives to make them usable with DOS) then do not install LILO to the MBR. If you do, you may disable EZ-DRIVE and render your disk unusable with DOS. Instead代替,更换, install LILO to the superblock of your root Linux partition, and use fdisk to make the partition bootable.

(With MS-DOS fdisk, this is called setting the "active活动的" partition)



The next menu lets you set a delay迟延 before the system boots into the default operating system. If you're using LILO to boot more than one operating system (such as DOS and Linux) then you'll need to set a delay so you can pick which OS you'd like to boot. If you press the SHIFT key during the delay, LILO will display显示 a prompt提示 where you can type a label (typically Windows or Linux) to select which OS to boot. If you set the delay to 'Forever永远', the system will display a prompt at boot time and wait for you to enter a choice.



Next, you need to add entries条目 for each operating system that LILO can boot. The first entry you make will be the machine's default operating system. You can add either任一 a DOS, Linux, or Windows partition first.

For example, let's say you select "Linux". The system will display your Linux partitions and ask which one of them you'd like to boot. Enter the name (like /dev/hda1) of your root Linux partition. Then, you'll be prompted to enter a label. This is the name you will enter at the boot time LILO prompt to select which partition you want to boot. A good

choice for this is "Linux".



Adding a DOS or Windows partition is similar相似的. To add a Windows partition to the LILO configuration file, select the Windows option. The system will display显示 your FAT/NTFS partitions and ask which one of them you'd like to boot with LILO. Enter the name of your primary Windows partition. Then enter a label for the partition, like "Windows". Once you've added all of your bootable partitions, install LILO by selecting the "Install" option.





4.8 Networking



Another configuration menu allows you to configure your machine's networking setup. First, enter a hostname for your machine. The default hostname after installation is "darkstar," but you can enter any name you like. Next, you'll be asked to provide提供 a domain name因特网根据国家和组织类型的分类. If you're running a stand-alone machine (possibly using a dialup link to an Internet Service Provider供应者) then you can pick选择 any name you like. The default domain name is "example.net". If you are going to add the machine to a local network, you'll need to use the same domain name as the rest剩余部分; 其余; 其余的人 of the machines on your network. If you're not sure what this is, contact联系 your network

administrator for help. Once you've specified具体指定 the hostname and domain name, you'll be asked which type of setup you would like: "static静态的 IP", "DHCP", or "loopback回送".



Loopback

--------



This is the simplest简单的, 简明的 type of setup, defining定义; 详细说明 only a mechanism for the machine to contact itself. If you do not have an Ethernet card, use this selection. This is also the correct正确的 selection if you'll be using a PCMCIA (laptop) Ethernet card and want to set up your networking in /etc/pcmcia/network.opts. (you could also configure a PCMCIA card using the "static IP" or "DHCP" options, but in that case will not be able to "hotplug" the card) Finally最后, this is the right option to use if you have a modem, and will be connecting连接的 via通过 dialout and PPP. You'll select loopback now, and then set up your phone connection连接 later using pppsetup or kppp.



Static IP

---------



If your machine has an Ethernet card with a static IP address assigned分派 to it, you can use this option to set it up. You'll be prompted提示 to enter your machine's IP address, netmask, the gateway IP address, and the nameserver IP address. If you don't know what numbers you should be using, ask the person人 in charge对...索费 of the network to help. After entering your information, you'll be asked if you want to probe探测 for your network card. This is a good idea, so say yes. Confirm稳固地 that the settings are correct正确的, and your networking will be configured to use a static IP address.



DHCP

----



DHCP stands for Dynamic动态的 Host Configuration配置 Protocol协议, and is a system where your machine contact接触; 联系s a server to obtain得到 its IP and DNS information.

This is the usual way to get an IP address with broadband宽带 connections like cable 电缆 modems调制解调器 (although some more expensive贵的 business-class broadband connections may assign 分派 static IP addresses). It is very easy to set up a DHCP connection连接 -- just select the option. Some providers供应 [供给] 者 will give you a DHCP hostname (Cox舵手 is one that does) that you'll also need to enter in order次序 to identify 识别 yourself to the network. If you don't have a DHCP hostname, just leave it blank空白 and hit ENTER. After entering your information, you'll be asked if you want to probe探测 for your network card.

This is a good idea, so say yes. Confirm确定 that the settings are correct正确的, and your networking will be configured to use DHCP.



Once you've completed使齐全 all the configuration menus, you can exit setup and reboot your machine. Simply简单地 press ctrl-alt-delete and the kernel will kill any programs that are running, unmount your filesystems, and restart the machine.





5. Booting the installed Slackware system



If you've installed LILO, make sure you don't have a disk in your floppy drive -- when your machine reboots it should start LILO. Otherwise, insert the bootdisk made for your system during the configuration process and use it to boot. Also, make sure to remove the CD-ROM to avoid booting it, or disable your machine's CD-ROM booting feature特征 in the BIOS settings.



The kernel will go through the startup process步骤, detecting检波 your hardware, checking your partitions and starting various不同的, 多方面的, 各种的 processes程序. Eventually最后 you'll be given a login prompt提示:



darkstar login:



Log into the new system as "root".



Welcome to Linux 2.6.27.7.



darkstar login: root

Last login: Tue Dec 2 19:33:31 -0700 2008 on tty3.



Linux 2.6.27.7.

You have new mail.



darkstar: ~#





6. Post自动检查电源, 计算机启动时一系列的自动检查-installation装置 configuration



Once the system is running, most of the work is complete结束. However然而, there are still还; 更; 仍 a few programs you'll need to configure. We'll cover覆盖 the most important of these in this section.



6.1 /etc/rc.d/rc.modules



This file contains包含 a list of Linux kernel modules模块. A kernel module is like a device driver under DOS. You can think of the /etc/rc.d/rc.modules file as similar相似的 to DOS's CONFIG.SYS. The file specifies明确说明 which modules the system needs to load to support支持 the machine's hardware. After booting your machine, you may find that some of your hardware isn't detected察觉; 侦查; 发觉 (usually an Ethernet card). To provide提供 the support支持, you'll need to load the correct正确的 kernel module. Note注释 that modern现代的 Linux kernels include包含 a feature特征 that allows允许 the kernel to load its own modules, called udev.

This will load many modules automatically自动地 without any need to edit rc.modules, and when using udev it might可能 be better to tell告诉 it how to load the modules you want automatically rather倒不如; 宁可, 宁愿; 而不是 than loading them at boot time with rc.modules. This is an advanced高级的 topic话题, and outside the scope范围 of this document. If you're interested in this, "man udev" is a good place to start reading. In any case时机; 事情, it's best to not edit rc.modules unless除非 you find that the modules you want to use are not being loaded automatically by udev. You can see a list of the modules that were loaded with the "lsmod" command. Likewise同样地, in the majority大多数 of cases "alsaconf" is not required必须的 to configure sound. Rather倒不如, the "alsamixer" tool is used to unmute the Master and PCM channels and turn up the volume, and the "alsactl store" is used to save the sound defaults.



There's a lot more information out there about kernel modules, including lists of module names and the cards they support支持, as well as extra options you can add to the module lines to configure the hardware in different ways. The kernel's documentation in /usr/src/linux/Documentation has a lot of good information, as does the information shipped with udev (found under /usr/doc/udev-*).





6.2 Configuring the X Window System



Configuring X can be a complex复杂的 task工作. The reason理由 for this is the vast巨大的, 非常的 numbers of video cards available可利用的 for the PC architecture构造, most of which use different programming 编制程序 interfaces界面, 分界面, 同做两体边界的表面; 使两个不同系统或程序互通的设备或程序. Luckily, most cards today support支持 basic video standards标准 known as VESA, and if your card is among在...之中 them you'll be able to start X using the "startx" command right out of the box.



If this doesn't work with your card, or if you'd like to take advantage有利条件 of the high-performance features特征 of your video card such as hardware acceleration加速 or 3-D hardware rendering表现, then you'll need to reconfigure重新装配 X.



To configure X, you'll need to make an /etc/X11/xorg.conf file. This file contains包含 lots of details细节 about your video hardware, mouse, and monitor监视器.

It's a very complex复杂的 configuration file, but fortunately幸运地 there are several各自的programs to help create创建 one for you. We'll mention提到, 陈述 a few of them here:



Xorg -configure

---------------



Modern现代的 versions版本 of X provide提供 a simple简单的 way to create an initial原始的 xorg.conf file that often will work without any additional额外的 configuration, or, at the very least最小限度, provide a good base from which to customize为适合使用者需要对硬件程序或单件的适配 the file. To run this command, enter the following下列的 in a root terminal终端:



# Xorg -configure



The X server probes探测 for available有用的 hardware and creates创建 an initial初始的 xorg.file located位于…的 in the /root directory. You can then use this initial file to test进行测验 the configuration by entering输入 the following:



# Xorg -config /root/xorg.conf.new



This will load the initial xorg.conf.new file and run the X server. If you see the default缺省 black and gray灰色的 checkered使…呈现各种颜色 background with a mouse cursor光标 appear出现, then the configuration was successful成功的. To exit the X server, just press Ctrl+Alt+Backspace simultaneously同时地. Once back at the command line, you can copy this xorg.conf.new file to /etc/X11/xorg.conf and begin making any manual手动的 edits necessary必要的 to customize为适合使用者需要对硬件程序或单件的适配 your setup.



xorgsetup

---------



This is a simple简单的 menu driven frontend that's similar相似的 in feel感觉 to the Slackware installer. It simply tells the X server to take a look at the card, and then set up the best initial configuration file it can make based以...作基础 on the information it gathers使聚集. The generated产生, 导致, 发生 /etc/X11/xorg.conf file should be a good starting point for most systems (and should work without modification修改).



xorgconfig

----------



This is a text文本-based以...作基础 X configuration program that's designed设计好的 for the advanced在前面的 system administrator管理员. Here's a sample样品, 标本 walkthrough运行计算机程序之前简单地阅读程序原始码 using xorgconfig. First, start the program:



# xorgconfig



This will present呈献 a screen full of information about xorgconfig. To continue不间断地, press enter. xorgconfig will ask you to verify检验 you have set your PATH correctly正确地. It should be fine, so go ahead and hit enter.



Next, select your mouse from the menu presented呈献. If you don't see your serial串行的 mouse listed, pick选择 the Microsoft protocol协议 -- it's the most common公共用地

and will probably或许 work. Next xorgconfig will ask you about using Chord弦杆Middle中央的 and Emulate仿真3Buttons. You'll see these options described记述 in detail详述 on the screen. Use them if the middle中间 button on your mouse doesn't work under X, or if your mouse only has two buttons (Emulate3Buttons lets you simulate看上去像; 模仿 the middle button by pressing both双 buttons simultaneously同时地).

Then, enter the name of your mouse device. The default choice, /dev/mouse, should work since自...以来 the link was configured during Slackware setup. If you're running GPM (the Linux mouse server) in repeater重发器 mode, you can set your mouse type to /dev/gpmdata to have X get information about the mouse through gpm. In some cases时机 (with busmice especially特别地) this can work better, but most users shouldn't do this.



xorgconfig will ask you about enabling使能够 special特殊的 key bindings捆绑, 装订, 扣紧, 连接; 通讯协议和网络接合器的连接. If you need this say "y". Most users can say "n" -- enter this if you're not sure.



In the next section you enter the sync同时性 range行列 for your monitor监视器. To start configuring your monitor, press enter. You will see a list of monitor types类型 -- choose one of them. Be careful not to exceed超过 the specifications规格of your monitor. Doing so could damage毁坏 your hardware. Specify明确说明 the vertical垂直的 sync range行列 for your monitor (you should find this in the manual手册 for the monitor). xorgconfig will ask you to enter strings一串 to identify识别, 鉴定, 认明 the monitor type in the xorg.conf file. Enter anything you like on these 3 lines (including nothing at all).



Now you have the opportunity to look at the database 数据库 of video card types.

You'll want to do this, so say "y", and select a card from the list shown显示.

If you don't see your exact准确的 card, try selecting one that uses the same chipset连接中央处理器和其他部件的集成电路片组 (集成电路片在主机板和各种卡中) and it will probably或许 work fine. Then choose an X server. You should have installed the server recommended推荐 for your card, but if not,you can always go back and install that later. Choose option (5) to use the X server recommended for your video card's chipset.



Next, tell xorgconfig how much RAM you have on your video card.

xorgconfig will want you to enter some more descriptive 描述的 text about your video card. If you like, you can enter descriptions on these three lines.



You'll be asked next about your RAMDAC and clock generator生成器 settings. You may enter them if you know the values重要性, but the X server will probably successfully顺利地; 成功地 probe探测 for these values. The next option is to run X -probeonly to find the clock settings for the card. You can try this, and if it works it will speed up X's startup time. If it fails失败, it's not usually通常 a big problem. If it causes导致 problems with your card, don't use it.



You'll then be asked which display显示 resolutions决定 you want to use. Again,going with the provided提供 defaults should be fine to start with. Later on,you can edit the /etc/X11/xorg.conf file and rearrange重新整理 the modes so 1024x768 (or whatever mode you like) is the default.



At this point, the xorgconfig program will ask if you'd like to save the current现行的 configuration file. Answer yes, and the X configuration file is saved, completing完整的 the setup process步骤. You can start X now with the 'startx' command.



6.3 Hardware acceleration加速 with X



If you've used xorgsetup or xorgconfig to configure for your card, and it's one that can take advantage优势 of X's direct命令 rendering根据计算机里的模型自动创造三维图片 support支持,you'll certainly确定地 want to enable this. First, make sure that the AGP GART device is loaded in /etc/rc.d/rc.modules if you are using an AGP video card. Then, edit your /etc/X11/xorg.conf. Make sure that the glx and dri modules are being loaded:



Load "glx"

Load "dri"



These lines will probably already be in place.



Next, if you'd like non-root users to be able to enjoy享受 direct rendering support, add this to the end of your xorg.conf:



Section "DRI"

Mode 0666

EndSection





6.4 User Accounts帐户



You should make a user account for yourself. Using "root" as your everyday平常的 account is dangerous, and is considered考虑 bad form (at the very least) since you can accidentally意外地 damage毁坏 your system if you mistype a command. If you're logged in as a normal标准的 user, the effects结果 of bad commands will be much more limited有限的. Normally通常,一般情形 you'll only log in as root to perform执行 system administration tasks任务, such as setting or changing the root password, installing, configuring, or removing system software, and creating创建 or deleting user accounts.



To make an account for yourself, use the 'adduser' program. To start it, type 'adduser' at a prompt提示符 and follow the instructions指示. Going with the default selections for user ID, group ID, and shell should be just fine for most users. You'll want to add your user to the cdrom, audio, video plugdev (plugable devices like USB cameras and flash memory) and scanner扫描仪 groups if you have a computer with multimedia多媒体 peripherals周边的 and want to be able to access these. Add these group names, comma逗号 separated分开的, at the following prompt:



Additional groups (comma separated) []:





Passwords and security安全

----------------------



When choosing passwords for a Linux system that is connected联系 to a network you should pick选择 a strong password. However, passwords only help protect保护 a system from remote疏远的 trespassing侵入. It's easy to gain获得 access接近; 使用; 进入的权利 to a system if someone has physical实物的 access to the console控制台.



If you forget the root password, you can use the install disc to mount your root partition and edit the files containing包含 the password information. If you have a bootable optical drive, you can use the first installation CD-ROM or the DVD as a rescue援救 disk.



At the prompt提示, you can manually手工地 mount the root Linux partition from your hard drive ("fdisk -l" will give you a list) and remove the root password.

For example, if your root linux partition is /dev/hda2, here are the commands to use after logging into the install disc as "root":



mount /dev/hda2 /mnt

cd /mnt/etc



Next, you'll need to edit the "shadow" file to remove root's password.

Editors编辑 which might可能 be available有用的 include "vi", "emacs", "pico", and "nano".

"vi" and "emacs" might be more of an adventure冒险 than you need unless you've used them before. The "pico" and "nano" editors are easy for beginners to use.



pico shadow



At the top of the file, you'll see a line starting with root. Right after root, you'll notice注意 the encrypted将...译成密码 password information between two colons冒号.

Here's how root's line in /etc/shadow might look:



root:EnCl6vi6y2KjU:10266:0:::::



To remove root's password, you use the editor to erase清除 the scrambled乱序的 text between the two colons, leaving a line that looks like this:



root::10266:0:::::



Save the file and reboot the machine, and you'll be able to log in as root without a password. The first thing you should do is set a new password for root, especially特别地 if your machine is connected to a network.





Here are some pointers指示物 on avoiding避开 weak虚弱的 passwords:



1. Never use your name (or anyone's name), birthdate出生年月日, license plate, or anything relating与...有关 to yourself as a password. Someone trying to break使碎裂 into your machine might be able to look these things up.



2. Don't use a password that is any variation变化 of your login name.



3. Do not use words from the dictionary字典; 词典 (especially not "password" or syllables音节 of two different words concatenated连结 together as your password. There are automated自动化 programs floating around on the net that can try them all in a short time.



4. Do not use a number (like 123456) or a password shorter than six characters数字代表字母或其它符号.





The strongest passwords are a mix混合物 of letters字母, numbers, and symbols符号.

Here are some examples例子 of strong passwords (but don't use these ;-):



*^5g!:1? ()lsp@@9 i8#6#1*x ++c$!jke *2zt/mn1



In practice习惯, any password containing one or two words, a number (or two),and a symbol (or two) should be quite完全 secure安全的.





7. For more information



For more information, visit访问 our web site at http://www.slackware.com



To shop for fine Slackware products产品 (and help keep the project funded资金),

please visit http://store.slackware.com. :-)



Email: info@slackware.com (Information or general inquiries)

FTP: ftp://ftp.slackware.com (Updates)

WWW: http://www.slackware.com (News)

Security issues: security@slackware.com

General Hotline: volkerdi@slackware.com





8. Trademarks



Slackware is a registered注册的 trademark商标 of Slackware Linux, Inc.

Linux is a Registered Trademark of Linus Torvalds.

All trademarks are property所有权 of their respective相应的 owners.

作者: wangjunhuashuo   发布时间: 2009-01-18

鼓励一下,我建议你一句一句的翻译,而不是某些词某些词的翻

作者: slackcode   发布时间: 2009-01-19

本来我英语极差,正好借着看文档的机会也能学一学嘛!加上这些词注释,我也算完全看懂了,我想我都能看懂,应该也能帮一下别人吧!完全成中文了就没意义了,这样看一举两得,有意思些!

作者: wangjunhuashuo   发布时间: 2009-01-19

旨在学习,因人而异

作者: kangjs79   发布时间: 2009-01-19

楼主的英文水平比我强一点。。。

作者: 狱卒   发布时间: 2009-01-19