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Apache的Mod_rewrite使用详解

作者:  时间: 2011-04-27

今天主要列出一些例子。由于有些例子是针对特殊路径或特别情况的,列出供大家在思路上参考。因为它们就是些例子。

目标 重写设置 说明
规范化URL RewriteRule ^/~([^/]+)/?(.*) /u/$1/$2 [R] 将/~user重写为/u/user的形式
  RewriteRule ^/([uge])/([^/]+)$ /$1/$2/ [R] 将/u/user末尾漏掉的/补上
     
规范化HostName RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^fully.qualified.domain.name [NC] 域名不合格
  RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^$ 不空
  RewriteCond %{SERVER_PORT} !^80$ 不是80端口
  RewriteRule ^/(.*) http://fully.qualified.domain.name:%{SERVER_PORT}/$1 [L,R] 重写
  RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^fully.qualified.domain.name [NC]  
  RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} !^$  
  RewriteRule ^/(.*) http://fully.qualified.domain.name/$1 [L,R]  
     
URL根目录转移 RewriteEngine on  
  RewriteRule ^/$ /e/www/ [R] 从/移到/e/www/
     
末尾目录补斜线 RewriteEngine on  
(目录范围内) RewriteBase /~quux/  
  RewriteRule ^foo$ foo/ [R] /~quux/foo是一个目录,补/
     
  RewriteEngine on  
  RewriteBase /~quux/  
  RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -d 如果请文件名是个目录
  RewriteRule ^(.+[^/])$ $1/ [R] URL末尾不是斜线时补上
     
Web集群 RewriteEngine on  
  RewriteMap user-to-host txt:/path/to/map.user-to-host 用户-服务器映射
  RewriteMap group-to-host txt:/path/to/map.group-to-host 组-服务器映射
  RewriteMap entity-to-host txt:/path/to/map.entity-to-host 实体-服务器映射
  RewriteRule ^/u/([^/]+)/?(.*) http://${user-to-host:$1|server0}/u/$1/$2 用户均衡
  RewriteRule ^/g/([^/]+)/?(.*) http://${group-to-host:$1|server0}/g/$1/$2 组均衡
  RewriteRule ^/e/([^/]+)/?(.*) http://${entity-to-host:$1|server0}/e/$1/$2 实体均衡
  RewriteRule ^/([uge])/([^/]+)/?$ /$1/$2/.www/  
  RewriteRule ^/([uge])/([^/]+)/([^.]+.+) /$1/$2/.www/$3  
     
URL根目录搬迁 RewriteEngine on  
  RewriteRule ^/~(.+) http://newserver/~$1 [R,L] 到其它服务器
     
所用户名首字母分 RewriteEngine on  
  RewriteRule ^/~(([a-z])[a-z0-9]+)(.*) /home/$2/$1/.www$3 内一层括号为$2
     
NCSA imagemap移 RewriteEngine on  
植为mod_imap RewriteRule ^/cgi-bin/imagemap(.*) $1 [PT]  
     
多目录查找资源 RewriteEngine on  
  # first try to find it in custom/...  
  RewriteCond /your/docroot/dir1/%{REQUEST_FILENAME} -f  
  RewriteRule ^(.+) /your/docroot/dir1/$1 [L]  
  # second try to find it in pub/...  
  RewriteCond /your/docroot/dir2/%{REQUEST_FILENAME} -f  
  RewriteRule ^(.+) /your/docroot/dir2/$1 [L]  
  # else go on for other Alias or ScriptAlias directives,  
  RewriteRule ^(.+) - [PT]  
     
据URL设置环境变量 RewriteEngine on  
  RewriteRule ^(.*)/S=([^/]+)/(.*) $1/$3 [E=STATUS:$2]  
     
虚拟主机 RewriteEngine on  
  RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^www.[^.]+.host.com$ 基于用户名
  RewriteRule ^(.+) %{HTTP_HOST}$1 [C]  
  RewriteRule ^www.([^.]+).host.com(.*) /home/$1$2  
     
内外人有别 RewriteEngine on  
  RewriteCond %{REMOTE_HOST} !^.+.ourdomain.com$ 基于远程主机
  RewriteRule ^(/~.+) http://www.somewhere.com/$1 [R,L]  
     
错误重定向 RewriteEngine on  
  RewriteCond /your/docroot/%{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f 不是regular文件
  RewriteRule ^(.+) http://webserverB.dom/$1  
     
程序处理特殊协议 RewriteRule ^xredirect:(.+) /path/to/nph-xredirect.cgi/$1 Xredirect协议
  [T=application/x-httpd-cgi,L]  
     
最近镜像下载 RewriteEngine on  
  RewriteMap multiplex txt:/path/to/map.cxan 顶级域名与最近ftp服务器映射
  RewriteRule ^/CxAN/(.*) %{REMOTE_HOST}::$1 [C]  
  RewriteRule ^.+.([a-zA-Z]+)::(.*)$ ${multiplex:$1|ftp.default.dom}$2 [R,L] 据顶级域名不同提供不同的FTP服务器
     
基于时间重写 RewriteEngine on  
  RewriteCond %{TIME_HOUR}%{TIME_MIN} >0700  
  RewriteCond %{TIME_HOUR}%{TIME_MIN} <1900  
  RewriteRule ^foo.html$ foo.day.html 白天为早晚7点间
  RewriteRule ^foo.html$ foo.night.html 其余为夜间
     
向前兼容扩展名 RewriteEngine on  
  RewriteBase /~quux/  
  # parse out basename, but remember the fact  
  RewriteRule ^(.*).html$ $1 [C,E=WasHTML:yes]  
  # rewrite to document.phtml if exists  
  RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME}.phtml -f 如果存在$1.phtml则重写
  RewriteRule ^(.*)$ $1.phtml [S=1]  
  # else reverse the previous basename cutout  
  RewriteCond %{ENV:WasHTML} ^yes$ 如果不存在$1.phtml,则保持不变
  RewriteRule ^(.*)$ $1.html  
     
文件改名(目录级) RewriteEngine on 内部重写
  RewriteBase /~quux/  
  RewriteRule ^foo.html$ bar.html  
     
  RewriteEngine on 重定向由客户端再次提交
  RewriteBase /~quux/  
  RewriteRule ^foo.html$ bar.html [R]  
     
据浏览器类型重写 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Mozilla/3.*  
  RewriteRule ^foo.html$ foo.NS.html [L]  
  RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Lynx/.* [OR]  
  RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^Mozilla/[12].*  
  RewriteRule ^foo.html$ foo.20.html [L]  
  RewriteRule ^foo.html$ foo.32.html [L]  
     
动态镜像远程资源 RewriteEngine on  
  RewriteBase /~quux/  
  RewriteRule ^hotsheet/(.*)$ http://www.tstimpreso.com/hotsheet/$1 [P] 利用了代理模块
     
  RewriteEngine on  
  RewriteBase /~quux/  
  RewriteRule ^usa-news.html$ http://www.quux-corp.com/news/index.html [P]  
     
反向动态镜像 RewriteEngine on  
  RewriteCond /mirror/of/remotesite/$1 -U  
  RewriteRule ^http://www.remotesite.com/(.*)$ /mirror/of/remotesite/$1  
     
负载均衡 RewriteEngine on 利用代理实现round-robin效果
  RewriteMap lb prg:/path/to/lb.pl  
  RewriteRule ^/(.+)$ ${lb:$1} [P,L]  
     
  #!/path/to/perl  
  $| = 1;  
  $name = "www"; # the hostname base  
  $first = 1; # the first server (not 0 here, because 0 is myself)  
  $last = 5; # the last server in the round-robin  
  $domain = "foo.dom"; # the domainname  
  $cnt = 0;  
  while () {  
  $cnt = (($cnt+1) % ($last+1-$first));  
  $server = sprintf("%s%d.%s", $name, $cnt+$first, $domain);  
  print "http://$server/$_";  
  }  
  ##EOF##  
     
静态页面变脚本 RewriteEngine on  
  RewriteBase /~quux/  
  RewriteRule ^foo.html$ foo.cgi [T=application/x-httpd-cgi]  
     
阻击机器人 RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^NameOfBadRobot.*  
  RewriteCond %{REMOTE_ADDR} ^123.45.67.[8-9]$  
  RewriteRule ^/~quux/foo/arc/.+ - [F]  
     
阻止盗连你的图片 RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^$  
  RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://www.quux-corp.de/~quux/.*$ [NC] 自己的连接可不能被阻止
  RewriteRule .*.gif$ - [F]  
     
  RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^$  
  RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !.*/foo-with-gif.html$  
  RewriteRule ^inlined-in-foo.gif$ - [F]  
     
拒绝某些主机访问 RewriteEngine on  
  RewriteMap hosts-deny txt:/path/to/hosts.deny  
  RewriteCond ${hosts-deny:%{REMOTE_HOST}|NOT-FOUND} !=NOT-FOUND [OR]  
  RewriteCond ${hosts-deny:%{REMOTE_ADDR}|NOT-FOUND} !=NOT-FOUND  
  RewriteRule ^/.* - [F]  
     
用户授权 RewriteCond %{REMOTE_IDENT}@%{REMOTE_HOST} !^friend1@client1.quux-corp.com$  
  RewriteCond %{REMOTE_IDENT}@%{REMOTE_HOST} !^friend2@client2.quux-corp.com$  
  RewriteCond %{REMOTE_IDENT}@%{REMOTE_HOST} !^friend3@client3.quux-corp.com$  
  RewriteRule ^/~quux/only-for-friends/ - [F]  
     
外部重写程序模板 RewriteEngine on  
  RewriteMap quux-map prg:/path/to/map.quux.pl  
  RewriteRule ^/~quux/(.*)$ /~quux/${quux-map:$1}  
     
  #!/path/to/perl  
  $| = 1;  
  while (<>) {  
  s|^foo/|bar/|;  
  print $_;  
  }  
     
搜索引擎友好 RewriteRule ^/products$ /content.php  
  RewriteRule ^/products/([0-9]+)$ /content.php?id=$1  
  RewriteRule ^/products/([0-9]+),([ad]*),([0-9]{0,3}),([0-9]*),([0-9]*$) /marso/content.php?id=$1&sort=$2&order=$3&start=$4